Methods to control Population Growth :-
The most important step to overcome this population growth rate is to motivate a smaller families by using various contraceptive methods.
1. Natural methods :-
This method work on the principle of avoiding chances of ovum and sperms meeting periodic abstinence is one such method in which the couples avoid of abstain from coitus from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation could be expepted. As chances of fertilisation are very high during this period. therefore by abstaining from coitus during this period conception could be prevented.
- Withdrawal is another method in which the male partner withdraws his penis from vagina just before ejaculation so as to avoid insemination.
- Lactation amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) method is based on the fact that ovulation. As long as the mother breast feeds the child fully, chances of conception are almost nil. This method is effective only up to maximum six months from the parturition.
2. Barrier methods :-
Ovum and Sperms are prevented from physically meeting with the help of barriers. Condoms physically meeting with the help of a barrier. Condoms are barriers made of thin rubber / latex sheath that are used to cover the penis in the male or vagina and cervix in the female.
- Nirodh is the popular brand of condom for male. Use of condoms has increased in recent years due to additional benefit of protecting the user from Contracting sexual transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS. Both the male and female condoms are disposable.
- Diaphragms, cervical caps and vaults are also barriers made of rubber that are inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix during coitus. They prevent the entry of sperms through the cervix.
- Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are the popular barrier method, these are inserted by doctors or expert nurses in the uterus through vagina. IUDs are presently available as the non-medicated lippes loop, Copper releasing copper -T and the hormone releasing LNG – 20. IUDs increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus. It is one of the most methods of contraception in India.
3. Hormonal methods :-
Oral administration small dose of either progesterone or progesterone -estrogen combination is another method used by the females. They are used in the form of tablets called pills. They have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days starting preferably within the first five days of menstrual cycle. After a gap of 7 days (during mens) it has to be repeated in same pattern till the female desires to prevent conception. They inhibit ovulation and implantation.
They are available in the markets as Saheli, Mala – D, Mala – N.
4. Surgical methods :-
It is also called a sterilisation, this method blocks gametes transport and thereby prevent conception sterilisation procedure in the male is called Vasectomy and that in female Tubectomy.
- In Vasectomy a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum.
- In tubectomy a small part of the fallopian tube removed or tied up in the abdomen or through vagina. This techniques are highly effective but their reversibility is very poor.
Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) or Induced abortion :-
MTP has a significant role in decreasing the population through it is not meant for the purpose. Whether to accept MTP or not is being debated upon in many countries due to emotional, ethical, religious and social issues involved in it.
- Government of India accept MTP in 1971 with some strict conditions to avoid its misuse, such restrictions are all the more important to check indiscriminate and accept female foeticides which are reported to be high in India.
- MTPs are essential in certain cases where continuation of the pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal either to the mother or the foetus.
- MTPs are considered relatively safe during the first trimester (upto 12 weeks of pregnancy) second trimester abortions are much more risker.
It is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities, fetal infections and also for sex determination in which a small amount of amniotic fluid which contains fetal tissues is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing embryo (foetus), then the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.
- Amniocentesis is performed when a woman is between 14 to 16 weeks gestation.
- Statutory ban on amniocentesis for sex determination to legally check increasing female foeticides, massive child immunisation etc.
- If the foetus is found to be female, it is followed by MTP. This is totally against.