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Mutation and Its Types

Mutation and Its Types:- Mutation is a phenomenon which results in alternation of DNA sequences and consequently results in changes in the genotype and phenotype of an organism. In addition to recombination, mutation is another phenomenon that leads to variation in DNA. Causes of mutations :- There are many chemical and physical factors that induce…

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Sex Determination in Human

Sex Determination in Human :- sex determination is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristic in an organism. Sex determination in human by chromosomal difference. Most organisms that created their offspring using sexual reproduction have two sexes. In human beings a sex chromosome that carries the genes for male characters is called…

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Crossing Over and It’s Importance

Crossing Over :- Crossing over is a mechanism by which a group of genes on one chromosome changes it’s place with a similar group on it’s homologous chromosome. Term crossing over were first given by Morgan & Castle in 1912. Mechanism of crossing over :- Mechanism can be explained under the following steps – 1….

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Monohybrid cross and the Punnet square

Monohybrid cross :- Monohybrid is the cross involves one character and single gene pair.It leads to monohybrid offspring in F₁ generation. Mendel proposed that in a true breeding, tall or dwarf pea variety the allelic pair of genes for height are identical or homozygous, TT and tt respectively. TT and tt are called genotype of…

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Dihybrid cross

It is a cross which involves two characters and two gene pair. it leads to dihybrid F₁ offspring. Mendel worked with and crossed pea plants that differed in two characters, as is seen in the cross between a pea plant that has seeds with yellow colour and round shape, one that had seeds of green…

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DNA Replication and Central dogma

Replication of DNA :- Watson and Crick had proposed a scheme for Replication of DNA. The scheme suggested that the two strands would separate and as a template for the synthesis of new complementary strands. After the completion of replication, each DNA molecule would have one parental and one newly synthesised strand. This scheme was…

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