AIDS and it’s Transmission

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AIDS ( Acquired human Immune Deficiency Syndrome ) is pandemic disease, first recognised in USA ( 1981 ), believed to occured in Africa. First confirmed evidence of AIDS in India April 1986 ( 6 prostitutes from Tamilnadu were found HIV positive ).

Causative agent :-

HIV ( Human Immunodeficiency Virus ), it is retrovirus which have RNA and reverse transcriptase.

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Fig. 1. Structure of HIV.

Naming of virus in France – LAV ( Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus ), in USA – HTLV ( Human T – cell Lymphotropic Virus ). Most accepted name – HIV ( Human Immunodeficiency Virus ).

Sources of infection :- Blood, semen, CSF, saliva, breast milk, urine, vaginal secretion, brain tissue, lymph node and bone marrow.

Best source of infection – blood and semen.

Fig. 2. Source of infection

Transmission :-

Sexual transmission – homosexual and bisexual.

Infected blood transfusion.

Use of contaminated needles, syringes and razors etc.

Maternal foetal transmission.

Most prominent risk of transmission :-

Sexual contact and blood transfusion.

It cannot be transmitted by following –

Insect bite, crowded transport, shaking hands, sharing towel, coughing, sneezing kissing, embracing, sharing utilities and telephones, swimming pools and toilets.

Incubation period :-

up to 6 years or more.

HIV Infection :-

Enters inside T – helper cell and multiply ( replicate ) inside the cell.

Result :-

destruction of T helper cell and failure to immune system of the patient.

Symptoms :-

Unexplained loss of body weight, chronic diarrhea, fever ( prolonged ), persistent cough, itching and inflamed skin, recurrent herpes zoster ( virus ), sweating at night, generalised lymphadenopathy ( type of cancer ), generalised kaposi’s sarcoma and cryptococcal meningitis.

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Fig. 3. Symptoms of Disease.

Diagnosis :-

Primary test –

ELISA ( Enzyme Linked Immuno sorbbant assay ).

It is the technique based upon the antigen and antibody reaction. It is utilised in the diagnosis of several diseases including AIDS and also certain type of cancer. If ELISA test is positive then go for confirmatory test ( Western blot test ).

Western Blot test : –

Culturing of blood and testing plasma for virus.

Control :-

Vaccine – No any.

  • Treatment – No any, A drug Azidothymidine ( AZT ) or Zidovudine ( Antiretroviral medication ) uses for prolong the life of patient.
  • Education, prevent blood born HIV transmission, prevent unknown and unsafe sexual contact.
World AIDS Day :-
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Fig. 4.

World AIDS Day – 1 December.

World AIDS Day originated the 1988 United Nation World summit of Health ministry on programmes for AIDS prevention. The day is an opportunity for people Worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV. Our community play a vital role in bringing life saving HIV Prevention Services to the people.

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