It refers to the process of polymerisation of amino acids to form a polypeptide or protein. The order and sequence of amino acids are defined by the sequence of bases in the mRNA.
- The amino acids are joined by a bond which is known as peptide bond. Formation of a peptide bond requires energy. Therefore, in first phase itself amino acids are activated in the presence of ATP and linked to their cognate tRNA. A process commonly called as charging of tRNA or aminoacylation of tRNA.
- The ribosome consists of structural RNAs and about 80 different proteins, in this inactive state it exists as two subunits- a large subunit and a small subunit. The small subunit encounters an mRNA. The process of translation of the mRNA to protein begins.
- A translational unit in mRNA is the sequence of RNA that is flanked by the start codon (AUG) and the stop codon, codes for polypeptide