Applications of Biotechnology

08/10/2020 Vinod 0 Comments

Applications of Biotechnology :-

Various application of biotechnology Source Sukumaran 2006 and Gavrilescu 2010
Fig . 1

Applications of Biotechnology in –

1 . Alcohol production .

2 . Dairy products formation .

3 . Organic acids formation .

4 . Enzymes production .

5 . Vitamins production .

6 . Antibiotics production .

7 . Vaccines production .

8 . Hormones production .

9 . Recombinant DNA technology .

10 . Steroids production and

11 . Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture .

Applications of Biotechnology in Alcohol production :-

Used of micro organism like Yeasts or Yeast like organism in alcoholic fermentation or Yeast fermentation .

Fermentation :- First reported by Louis Pasteur , Reported that alcohol , beer , butter milk , are result of yeast fermentation .

  • Fermentation process is completed with the help of enzymes produced by yeast . These Enzymes are Invertase , Zymase .

Common products of Yeast / Alcoholic fermentation :-

( a ) Beer :- Produced from barley malt , alcohol contains 4 – 8 ℅

( b ) Wine :- From Fruit juices specially grapes or sometimes apples , oranges . Alcohol contains 10 – 20 ℅

( c ) Brandy :- From fruit juice by distillation of wine . Alcohol contains 43 – 57 ℅

( d ) Rum :- From sugarcane , alcohol contains 40 ℅

( e ) Whisky :- From fermented cereals like maize , wheat . Alcohol contains 25 – 35 %

Applications of Biotechnology in Dairy products formation :-

Youghurt / Yogurt , Cheese , Whey etc .are dairy products .

Yogurt :-

Yogurt is a special diet semi solid preparation , produced by curdling of milk with the help of curdling culture at 4o – 46⁰c for four hours .

Lactobacillus bulgaricus , Streptococcus lactis these micro-organisms ( bacteria ) secretes enzyme lactase . Milk contains lactose sugar is converted into lactic acid with the help enzyme lactase , coagulates milk protein casein and forms Curd .

  • For sweetening and flavour Fruits mixed with Yogurt .
  • Yogurt is more useful because of the process of additional vitamins produced by bacteria , Yeast etc .

Cheese :-

Cheese is a product of curdling fermentation . It is a nutritive product which contains – proteins 22 to 35% , vitamins small amount and fats 20 to 30% .

  • It is formed by the curdling of milk with the help of lactic acid bacteria followed by addition of sheep or goat stomach as a source of rennet enzyme .
  • Cheese producing enzyme was first extracted by C . Hansen from Calf’s stomach .
  • Cheese may be soft or hard , soft cheese contains more than 40% moisture while hard cheese contains less than 40% moisture .

Applications of Biotechnology in organic acid production :-

Common acids :-

1 . Lactic acid . – First organic acid produce through fermentation .

  • sources – From the fermentation of corn starch , molasses , potato , whey .
  • Agent / microbes – Streptococcus , Lactobacillus .
  • Uses – preservative .
  • 2 . Acetic acid
  • Sources – From the fermentation of sugarcane juice .
  • Agent / microbes – Yeast , Acetobacter aceti .
  • Uses – used in pharmaceuticals used as colouring agent .
  • 3 . Citric acid . –
  • Sources – From the fermentation of molasses in beet root .
  • Agent/ microbes – Aspergillus niger , Yeast .
  • Uses – used in dying .

4 . Gluconic acid . –

  • Sources – From the Oxidation of Glucose .
  • Agent / Microbes – Aspergillus niger , Penicillium species .
  • Uses – used in pharmaceuticals .

5 . Gallic acid . –

  • Sources – From the Oxidation of Glucose .
  • Agent / Microbes – Aspergillus niger .
  • Uses – used in Ink making .

Applications of Biotechnology in enzyme production :-

Enzyme Rennet first isolated by Hansen from Calf’s stomach .

  • Enzyme Diastase first isolated by Persoz and Pyren from germinating Barley grain . ( fermentef malt ) .
  • Total Enzymes discovered – about 2200 but only a few about 250 enzymes used in industries , medicines and and food productions .

Common Enzymes from Applications of Biotechnology :-

1 .Protease ( proteolytic enzyme ) :-

  • Sources – From Aspergillus oryzae , Bacillus subtilis .
  • Uses – used in detergent and remove some proteinaceous cloth .

2 .Amylase :-

  • Sources – Bacillus subtilis , Aspergillus oryzae , Aspergillus niger.
  • Uses – used to bread making , for softening of starched cloth .

3 . Papain :-

  • Sourses – From latex of papaya .
  • Uses – used for making the meat tender .

4 . Pectinase :-

  • Sources – From Aspergillus luchuensis .
  • Uses – used for destruction of Penicillium .

5 . Rennet :-

  • Sources – From Calf’s stomach .
  • Uses – used for cheese preparation .

6 . Thrombin :-

  • Sources – From blood plasma .
  • Uses – uses for blood clotting in surgical operations .

7 . Cellulase :-

  • Sources – From Myrothecium verrucaria .
  • Uses – used in production of Dextrin and Fructose .

Applications of Biotechnology in vitamins production :-

Vitamin was first discovered and Vitamin term given by Funk .

  • Vitamins are an organic compound needed in a small amount ( either produced by cell or provided along with food diet ) and regulate as well as catalyse various metabolic activities of living organisms .

Discovery of some Vitamins :-

1 . Vitamin B₁ ( Thiamine ) – First discovered by Funk .

  • Deficiency disease – Beri- beri .

2 . Vitamin C ( Ascorbic acid ) – First discovered by Gyorgy .

  • Deficiency disease – Scurvy .

3 . Vitamin A ( Ratinol ) – First isolated by Mecullum .

  • Deficiency disease – Night blindness .

4 . Vitamin D ( Calciferol ) – First isolated by Mellarby .

  • Deficiency disease – Ricketi .

Total Vitamins – about two dozen .

Fat soluble Vitamins –

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K

Water soluble Vitamins –

  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin B complex
Vitamin B complex –
  • Vitamin B₁ ( Thiamine )
  • Vitamin B₂ ( Riboflavin )
  • Vitamin B₃ ( Pantothenic acid )
  • Vitamin B₅ ( Niacin )
  • Vitamin B₆ ( Pyridoxine )
  • Vitamin B₁₂ ( Cobalamine )

Applications of Biotechnology in antibiotic production :-

A substance of microbial origin with antimicrobial activity . A chemical substances secreted by one microorganism checks the growth of another microorganism .

  • Term antibiotic used by Waksman , he discovered two antibiotics – Streptomycin and Actinomycin .
  • First discovered antibiotic – Penicillin , discovered by Alexander Flemming .

Source of Antibiotics :-

Fungi , Bacteria .

Total Antibiotics – about 7000

  • Broad spectrum Antibiotics – inhibits many pathogenic species .
  • Narrow spectrum Antibiotics – inhibits an specific pathogenic species .

Common antibiotics and microbial source :-

Bacterial origin –

1 . Subtilin .

  • Source – Bacillus subtilis .

2 . Polymyxin .

  • Source – Bacillus polymyxa .

3 . Streptomycin .

  • Source – Streptomyces griseus .

4 . Chloromycin .

  • Source – Streptomyces venezuelae.

5 . Terramycin .

  • Source – Streptomyces rimosus .

6 . Aureomycin .

  • Source – Streptomyces aureofaciens .

7 . Erythromycin .

  • Source – Streptomyces erythraeus .

8 . Neomycin .

  • Source – Streptomyces fradiae .

Fungal origin –

9 . Penicillin .

  • Source – Penicillium notatum .

10 . Ergotine .

  • Source – Claviceps purpurea .

11 . Grieseofulvin .

  • Source – Penicillium grieseofulvum .

12 . Citrinin .

  • Source – Penicillium citrinin .
hpm 0000 0004 0 img0007
Fig . 2

Applications of Biotechnology in Vaccines production :-

Vaccine is liquid dead , attenuated form . It can be injected or taken orally to provide immunity towards that pathogens .

  • Vaccine was discovered by Edward Jenner ( 1796 ) against small pox .
  • First generation Vaccines – they are obtained by conventional technique involving killing or weakening of the pathogen but they have side effects .
  • Second generation Vaccines – they are ones made of pure antigen of the pathogen only which are multiplied through Genetic engineering . Example – Vaccine against Hepatitis B .
  • Third generation Vaccines – They are purest , highest potency Vaccines which are synthetic in nature .

Applications of Biotechnology in Recombinant DNA technology :-

Used in synthesis of useful products

1 . Insulin ( Humulin ) :-

IMG 20201008 172225 10
Fig . 3 . Insulin production through Recombinant
DNA technology .
IMG 20201025 151636 4
Fig . 4 . maturation of pro-insulin into insulin .

2 . Human growth hormone ( GH ) :- These hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland .

Deficiency cause Dwarfism . GH can be synthesised through Recombinant DNA technology where DNA / Genes needed for the synthesis of GH . First synthesised and then integrated with bacterial plasmid to produce required amount of hormones ( GH ) .

3 . Interferon :- Antiviral protein I . e . checks viral growth synthesised by viral infected host cell . interact with neighbouring non – infected cells and makes them resistant to viral attack .

  • Interferon synthesised by Genetic engineering are effective against influenza virus , Hepatitis virus etc .

Applications of biotechnology in Agriculture :-

Applications of biotechnology for increasing food production –

1 . Agro-chemical based agriculture .

2 . Organic agriculture and

3 . Genetically engineered crop based agriculture .

The Green Revolution succeed in tripling the food supply but yet it was not enough to feed the growing human population . Increased yields have partly been due to the use of improved crop varieties , but mainly due to the use of better management practices and use of Agrochemicals ( fertilizers and pesticides ) .

However , for farmers in the developing world , Agrochemicals are often too expensive , and further increases in yield with existing varieties are not possible using conventional breeding .

  • There are alternative path that our understanding of genetics can show so that farmers may obtain maximum yield from their fields .
  • Use of genetically modified crops is a possible solution .
  • Plants , bacteria and animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation are called Genetically Modified Organisms ( GMO ) .

GM plants have been useful in many ways . Genetically modified has –

1 . made crops more tolerant to abiotic stress ( cold , drought , salt , heat ) .

2 . reduced reliance on chemical pesticides ( pest resistant crops ) .

3 . help to reduce post harvest losses .

4 . increased efficiency of mineral used by plants ( this prevent early exhaustion of fertility of soil ) .

5 . enhanced nutritional value of food , example – vitamin A enriched rice .

  • Some of the applications of biotechnology in agriculture that I will study in detail for the production of pest resistant plants , which could decrease the amount of pesticide used .

BT toxin is produced by a bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) .

  • BT toxin gene has been cloned from the bacteria and been expressed in plants to provide resistance to insects without the need for insecticides , in effect created a Bio -pesticide .

Examples are BT Cotton , BT corn , rice , tomato , potato and soybean etc .

BT cotton :-

Some strains of Bacillus thuringiensis produce proteins that kill certain insects such as lepidopterans ( tobacco budworm , armyworm ) , coleopterans ( beetles ) and dipterans ( flies , mosquitoes ) .

  • B . thuringiensis forms protein crystals during of particular page of their growth . These crystals contain a toxic insecticidal protein .
  • Specific BT toxin genes were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and incorporated into the several crop plants such as cotton .

The toxin is coded by a gene named cry . There are a number of them , for example , the proteins encoded by the genes cryIAc and cryIIAb Control the Cotton bollworms , that of cryIAb controls corn borer .

IMG 20201025 165810 1
Fig . 5 . Cotton boll destroyed by bollworms and a fully mature Cotton boll .

Applications of biotechnology in Pest Resistant plants : –

Several nematode parasitise wide variety of plants and animals including human beings . A nematode Meloidegyne incognittia infects the roots of tobacco plants and causes a great reduction in yield .

  • A novel strategy was adopted to prevent this infestation which was based on the process of RNA interference ( RNAi ) .
  • RNAi takes place in all Eukaryotic organisms as a method of cellular defence . this method involves silencing of a specific mRNA due to a complementary dsRNA molecule that binds to and prevents translation of the mRNA .
  • Using Agrobacterium vectors , nematode specific genes were introduced into the host plant . The introduction of DNA was such that it produced both sense and anti -sense RNA in the host cells .
IMG 20201025 174014 8
Fig . 6 . Host plant generated dsRNA triggers protection against nematode infestation .

Leave a Reply